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INTP思考者-所有人格中独立且最具哲理性的人格型 机翻

INTP Personality Type: Thinker & Seeker

INTP人格类型:思考者和探索者

The INTP personality type is the most independent and philosophical of the 16 types. INTPs have a deep need for personal autonomy and independence of thought. While they may not discover their intellectual side quite as early as an INTJ might, once their auxiliary function, Extraverted Intuition (Ne), has been fully awakened, they display an insatiable appetite for ideation and theorizing. Many enjoy exploring unifying theories and metaphysical truths that explain the underlying nature of things. Toward this end, they may devour stacks of books on philosophy, religion, psychology, evolutionary theory, and the like.

INTP型是所有人格中独立且最具哲理性的人格型。

INTP极为追求“个人的自主性”和“思考的独立性”,尽管他们没有INTJ在智力方面那么早的觉察力,但一旦他们的辅助功能——外向直觉(Ne)被唤醒,就会表现出对思维结构和理论知识的无穷兴趣。

很多INTP都喜欢探究那些可以解释事物本质的大一统理论和形而上的哲学,为此,他们会大量地阅读哲学、宗教、心理学、进化论等相关领域的书籍。

When vacationing from their philosophical investigations, the INTP, like their ENTP counterparts, can be quirky, witty, and engaging. Since INTPs extravert Intuition (Ne) and Feeling (Fe), they can have a certain charm, approachability, and congeniality about them. When discussing a topic that interests them, they can be stimulating conversationalists, as their ever active minds can easily connect one topic to another, paving the way for a multifaceted and broad-ranging dialogue. If disinterested however, such as when forced to endure protracted small talk, they will quickly zone out or find a way of redirecting the conversation. Despite appearing outwardly genuine and personable, INTPs are more interested in discussing ideas than the commonplace details of people’s lives. They enjoy discovering what makes people tick—their motivations, interests, patterns, and propensities. This allows INTPs to further hone and refine their theories (Ti-Ne) of human nature (Fe).

当INTP从哲学研究中抽离出来时,正如他们ENTP的同伴一样,INTP也可以是古灵精怪、充满魅力的。由于INTP的直觉(Ne)与情感(Fe)都是外向型功能,通常情况下他们都能展现出一定的亲和力与魅力。

当谈到感兴趣的话题时,INTP会变得健谈,他们思维活跃能轻而易举地将一个个话题串联起来,往往能展开非常广泛而多元的对话。

但如果是他们不感兴趣的话题,比如被迫忍受冗长的闲谈时,他们会瞬间放空,或者试图将话题重新引导回来。尽管他们表面看上去真诚而富有风度,但INTP其实更感兴趣讨论内在的思想,而并不是现实生活中的细节。

他们喜欢去探究是什么促使人们感兴趣的——人们的动机、兴趣点、行为模式和偏好倾向,这让INTP能够进一步完善他们对于人性(Fe)的认知(Ti-Ne)。

Like other introverts, INTPs can be anxious and self-conscious characters. It is not uncommon for them to display a handful of nervous habits, or at least some sign that they are not at ease. They generally avoid direct eye contact, as though the gaze of their interlocutor may somehow harm them or render them incapable of thinking or communicating. INTPs often have enough insecurity about the discombobulated nature of their Ne expressions in the first place. Feeling that someone else is watching or critiquing them only makes it worse. Like the INFP, INTPs can be slow to disclose the contents of their inner world. As strange as it may seem to other types, INTPs often conceal some of their most dominant personality features, namely, their highly cerebral and rational side. It may only be a select few who are granted full access to this side of the INTP. Others may only encounter INTPs’ inner world through encounters with their work, such as by reading something they have written. This may explain why many INTPs often take interest in writing, which provides an excellent forum for expressing themselves more fully and precisely.

和其他内向型人格一样,INTP也容易过度焦虑和自我知觉。对他们来说,表现出一些很紧张的特征并不稀奇,或者至少都能感觉到他们有些不自在。他们通常会避免直接的眼神接触,因为交谈者专注的目光可能会使他们无法继续思考与交流。

这是因为刚开始的时候,INTP都容易对他们混乱的Ne表达方式有很强的不安全感,如果感觉到别人在关注他们或者质疑他们,那只会让状况更糟糕。

与INFP一样,INTP也需要慢慢地去呈现自己的内心世界。但相比之下,INTP比较奇怪的一点是,他们通常会隐藏起部分人格,具体来说,就是他们极度理性清醒的那一面。

只有极少数人能完全走进INTP的世界,而其他的大部分人也许只能通过接触他们的作品来与他们的内心世界有一个短暂的邂逅。这也能解释为什么很多INTP都对写作感兴趣,这为他们更充分、更准确地表达自己提供了很好的途径。

Because of their reluctance to freely display the rational dimension of their personality, as well as the scattered nature of their Ne expressions, INTPs often feel their true level of knowledge and competence goes unnoticed by others. This is especially common in the workplace, where their lack of enthusiasm for organizational life, combined with their quirky outward demeanor, may be mistaken for incompetence. As discussed in my post on INTP careers, they can struggle to find satisfying jobs within the system and are often happier functioning as freelancers or entrepreneurs.

由于INTP并不愿意大胆地展示他们个性中理性的部分,也由于他们Ne功能表达散乱的天性,INTP常常会觉得自己真实的知识水平与能力被忽视了。

这种情况在工作场合中尤其常见,因为他们通常对组织生活缺乏热情,再加上一些稍显古怪的举止,就可能会被误认为是“力不胜任”的。正如我之前在INTP的职业生涯中所讨论的那样,他们往往很难在体制内找到满意的工作,做一个自由职业者或者企业家反而会比较开心。

When it comes to relationships, INTPs can also have a rough go of things (see my INTP relationships page). While they can use their Ne and Fe to attract potential mates, their internal tug-of-war between Ti and Fe, between their independence (Ti) and the relationship (Fe), can inspire myriad problems. This will be elaborated later in this profile in our section on Fe.

而在亲密关系上,INTP也往往遇到一些困难。尽管他们可以利用自己外向直觉(Ne)和外向情感(Fe)功能来吸引潜在配偶,但在他们的内向思考(Ti)和外向情感(Fe)功能往往在暗中角力——这是独立性(Ti)与依赖感(Fe)之间的角力,可能会导致很多问题,这将在后面外向情感(Fe)的相关章节中详述。


INTP Personality Type Development & “Functional Stack”

INTP的人格发展与功能类型

Each personality type prefers four of the eight functions first described by Jung. These four functions make up the “functional stack.” The relative strength of preference for these four functions is expressed in the following manner: dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, inferior. INTPs’ first preference is Ti, followed by Ne, Si and Fe respectively. This is depicted in the arrangement of INTPs’ functional stack:

每种人格型都倾向于使用荣格所描述的八种功能中的四种。这四个功能组成了一种“人格”的“功能类型”。这四个功能的相对强度以下列方式排序:主导功能、辅助功能、第三功能和第四功能。INTP的主导功能是Ti功能,其次是Ne功能,Si 功能和Fe功能。以下是具体描述:


INTPs’ Functional Stack

INTP的功能类型

Dominant function: Introverted Thinking (Ti)——主导功能:内向思考Ti

Auxiliary function: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)——辅助功能:外向直觉Ne

Tertiary function: Introverted Sensing (Si)——第三功能:内向感觉Si

Inferior function: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)——第四功能:外向情感Fe

While we will soon discuss each of the above functions in greater depth, for now, we will turn our attention to another feature of INTPs’ personality, their type development. As is true for other types, their type development consists of three primary phases.

虽然我们很快就会开始深入地讨论每一个功能,但是现在,我们先转向INTP的人格发展。正如所有人格型一样,INTP的人格发展包括了三个阶段。


Phase I (Childhood)

阶段一(孩童期)

This phase is characterized by the emergence and differentiation of INTPs’ dominant function, Introverted Thinking (Ti). Early in life, INTPs often employ their Ti to focus on one or two pursuits. They may, for instance, use it to master video games, program computers, get good grades, or perfect their 5 K time. Since Ti is a Judging function, INTPs often take themselves and their lives rather seriously. Even from a relatively young age, they are self-motivated and goal-oriented, striving for excellence in whatever captures their interests.

这一阶段是INTP的主导功能——内向思考(Ti)逐渐出现并显著化的过程。早年时,INTP通常会将他们的内向思考(Ti)功能专注在一两个目标上。例如,玩电子游戏、设计计算机程序、获得一个好成绩,或者尽可能地缩短5千英里跑步时间。

由于主导功能Ti是一个判断功能,INTP对待人生与生活的态度通常都是很严肃的,即使是在年轻时代,他们也会表现出很强的自我驱动与目标导向性,在任何他们感兴趣的领域都会力争优秀。


Phase II (Adolescence-30s)

阶段二(青少年期-30s

Once their dominant Ti reaches a certain level of consciousness and differentiation, INTPs’ inferior function, Extraverted Feeling (Fe), enters the picture and begins to play a more influential role. Phase II INTPs also show increasing use and development of their auxiliary function, Extraverted Intuition (Ne). During this phase, INTPs often develop a stronger interest in intellectual and philosophical endeavors, poised to see and understand “the big picture.” Developing their Ne involves an opening of prior judgments to allow an influx of new information. But since Ne is extraverted and expansive, INTPs must explore a breadth of ideas before they feel confident about who they are and what they believe. Thus, Phase II INTPs may find it easier to identify what they don’t believe than what they do believe. Some may struggle with nihilism or cynicism, worried that they may never find absolute truth. It can therefore take INTPs a great deal of time, even decades, to discern what they believe about the world, themselves, and their place in the world.

当INTP的主导功能Ti发展到一定阶段,他们的第四功能外向情感(Fe)便会开始进入INTP的视线,并逐渐扮演起更有影响力的角色。同时INTP也会更高频地开发和使用他们的辅助功能——外向直觉(Ne)。

在这一阶段,INTP往往会开始对知识和哲学产生更大的兴趣,并尝试去理解“大一统的图景”。通过进一步开发他们的辅助功能外向直觉(Ne),INTP可以为他们的主导功能Ti在判断之前引入大量开阔的信息。

但也由于Ne功能是一个外向型的、极具开放性的功能,这要求INTP在得出强有力的观点与信仰之前先探索一大堆新奇的想法,处于这一阶段的INTP可能会因此而变得不大敢相信任何事物,甚至有些人可能陷入到认知论上的虚无主义或犬儒主义,会怀疑他们也许终其一生都寻不到世界的绝对真理。

以此为契机,INTP可能将花费长达几十年的时间去了解他们自己、了解他们所处的世界、以及他们在这个世界的位置。


Phase III (30s, 40s, & Beyond)

阶段三(30s40s,及以后)

If all goes well and they are fortunate enough to enter Phase III, INTPs experience greater balance between their dominant Ti and inferior Fe functions. They discover that growth and integration takes place rather naturally as they learn to effectively and consistently employ their type’s strengths (i.e.their Ti and Ne).

如果能一切顺利并幸运地进入到人格发展的第三阶段,INTP将在其主导功能内向思考(Ti)和第四功能外向情感(Fe)之间感受到一种更好的平衡。他们会意识到原来当他们持续而有效地使用着自己的优势功能(如Ti和Ne)时,成长与整合已经在自然而然地发生了。


INTPs’ Dominant Function: Introverted Thinking (Ti)

INTP的主导功能:内向思考(Ti)

As enumerated in both of my INTP books, Introverted Thinking involves the application of logic and reason for the sake of understanding a given situation, system, or problem. INTPs use Ti to bring structure and order to their inner world, granting them a strong sense of inner control. Inwardly, INTPs are highly self-disciplined, working to effectively manage their thoughts and their lives. The disciplined nature of their Ti compels INTPs to frame many things as a goal or challenge. These challenges may be physical (e.g., trying to achieve an ideal state of health or fitness), intellectual, practical, psychoemotional (e.g., becoming self-actualized), or later in their development, interpersonal (e.g., “perfecting” a relationship or becoming a skilled lover). In order to succeed in these personal challenges, INTPs are apt to impose rules on themselves. However, because of the wayward influence of their auxiliary Ne, they commonly end up breaking or sabotaging them.

正如我在关于INTP的两本书中所提到的那样,内向思考(Ti)功能是指在面对任何情境、系统和问题时,运用逻辑与理性去处理。

INTP通过Ti功能构建自己内心世界的结构与秩序,从来得到一种强烈的自我控制感。在内心深处,INTP是高度自律的,能够高效地管理自己的思想与生活。

Ti功能自律的天性使得他们将很多事情都视为一个目标或者挑战,这些挑战可能是身体上的(比如想达到一种身体健美的理想状态),也可能是智力上的、实践中的、心理需求方面的(比如自我价值的实现),又或者是成长后期的人际关系需要(比如“完善”一段关系或成为一个很棒的伴侣)。

为了在这些形形色色的挑战中获得成功,INTP倾向于给自己设置各种规则,然而,由于他们辅助功能——外向直觉(Ne)的粗暴影响,这些规则又通常会被破坏掉。

INTPs are also less interested in working with facts than with ideas. Jung writes: “His ideas have their origin not in objective data, but in his subjective foundation.” INTPs are constantly digging into the background of their own thoughts in order to better understand their origins and to ensure their thinking is founded on solid reasoning. They see it pointless to try to build theories on a dubious conceptual platform, making them slower than Te types to rush into experiments to discover more “facts.”

INTP通常对“想法”更感兴趣,而不是具体的实现方式。荣格曾写道:“他的想法并不来源于客观资料,而来自于他的主观基础”。为了更好地理解自己思想的起源,同时也确保自己的思维是建立在坚实的理性推理之上的,INTP会不断地挖掘自己思想的底层根源。

他们通常认为如果底层的概念是可疑的,那么在此基础上构建的理论也将毫无意义,因此与外向思考(Te)型人格相比,他们(Ti型人格)通过实验发现“真相”的速度就要慢得多。

INTPs often find it easier to identify inconsistencies or logical shortcomings—to assert what is not true—than to identify and confidently assert what is true. They can quickly locate inconsistencies or logical shortcomings in a given theory or argument. They excel when it comes to identifying exceptions or imagining scenarios in which the proposed explanation could breakdown. Due to their sensitivity to theoretical exceptions, they can be quick to throw theories and start from scratch. INTJs, by contrast, seem less deterred by ostensible exceptions, perhaps feeling that they will eventually be explained or otherwise rectified.

INTP通常发现,对他们来说,识别“不一致”或者“逻辑缺陷”——即断言什么错的,要比去断言什么是对的容易得多。

他们可以很快的在给出的理论或论述中发现“不一致性”或者“逻辑缺陷”。在鉴别异常情况、或者预测可能导致系统崩溃的场景时,他们往往比其他人都要出色。

由于对理论异常情况的敏感性,他们通常能很快地放弃某个理论并且从头开始。而相比之下,INTJ就不太容易被一些理论上的异常情况所影响,他们总觉得这些异常最终会被解释或者修正。

When functioning constructively, INTPs, like INFPs, often employ a trial-and-error sort of approach to building their theories and ideas. INTPs start with a given (Ti) and then use their auxiliary Ne to explore various connections and possibilities. They also integrate past experiences and acquired knowledge through their tertiary Si. It is usually only after years of toying with ideas that something resembling a systematic and coherent theory may start to emerge.

当开展建设性工作时,INTP会和INFP一样,采取不断“试错”的方法来构建他们的理论和观点。

INTP通常会从一个给定的想法(Ti)开始,然后运用他们的辅助功能Ne去探索各种各样的关联度与可能性,同时他们也会整合一些过去的经验和他们通过第三功能Si所获取的后天知识。

通常他们要经过很多年的反复思考与重构后,才会诞生出系统性的、具有一致性的理论体系。

INTPs’ Auxiliary Function: Extraverted Intuition (Ne)

INTP的辅助功能:外向直觉(Ne)

INTPs use Extraverted Intuition (Ne) as their auxiliary function. Ne can function either perceptively or expressively. The verbal expression of Ne amounts to something like “brainstorming aloud.” When orating, INTPs may not always seem to “have a point” as they haphazardly drift from one idea to the next. Even ideas that seem inwardly logical and sensible INTPs may suddenly sound incoherent when they attempt to convey them through their Ne.

INTP的辅助功能是外向直觉(Ne) ,Ne既是一种感知功能,也是一种对外表达的功能。它的字面理解就是“说出口的头脑风暴”。

在演讲时,INTP的表达似乎总是缺少一个主题,因为他们会随意地从一个想法跳转到另一个想法,即使是那些有着很强内在逻辑与规律的观点,一旦经由他们的Ne功能表达出来,也会瞬间变得支离破碎。

In its receptive role, Ne prompts INTPs to gather information. Ne does not merely gather sensory information as Se does. Rather, it goes beyond or looks behind sense data, allowing INTPs to discern otherwise hidden patterns, possibilities, and potentials. Their Ne is constantly scanning for relationships or patterns within a pool of facts, ideas or experiences. INTPs commonly use this receptive side of their Ne in activities such as reading, researching, and conversation. They enjoy asking questions that allow them to gain insight or knowledge from others, making INTPs good facilitators of conversation.

在“感知功能”的那一面,Ne能够帮助INTP采集外界信息,但Ne又并不像Se那样只是收集一些感官资料,它能超越那些感官数据或者看到其背后所隐藏的信息,从而使INTP能更为深度地识别出隐藏的模式、可能性和发展潜力。

INTP会运用Ne功能在广泛的事实、想法或经验池中去探寻彼此之间的关系与模式,他们同样也会将Ne功能运用在阅读、研究和一些交谈活动中。

INTP很喜欢问问题,他们能因此从别人身上获得新的知识与洞察,而这也使得INTP能成为活跃的交谈者。

INTPs may also use their Ne to sniff out intriguing possibilities. They commonly enjoy and assume the role of wanderer or seeker, rarely knowing in advance exactly what they are seeking.

INTP也同样会使用他们的Ne功能去发觉一些有意思的可能性。他们通常很喜欢去设想自己是侠士或者寻找者的角色,尽管他们通常很少知道自己到底在寻找什么。

Ne also confers an open-mindedness, helping INTPs see truth on both sides of an issue without forming unwarranted judgments or premature conclusions. More specifically, their Ne can be seen as contributing to their openness to alternative or Bohemian lifestyles. INTPs are those most likely to suddenly become vegetarians, join a commune, or decide to live out of the back of a van. They are drawn to the idea and challenges of an unconventional lifestyle.

Ne功能还会让人视野开阔,帮助INTP看到事物的两面性,而不会仅仅依赖一些毫无根据的判断或者先入为主的印象。更具体地说,Ne功能可能会使INTP投向一种更另类的、波西米亚式的生活方式。

INTP是那些最有可能突然变成一个素食者、加入一个公社、或者从此以车为家的人。他们会被那些非传统的生活方式所吸引。

Like other NPs, INTPs often have a love-hate relationship with their Ne. They love the fact that it helps them remain open-minded and grasp the bigger picture. But living with Ne also has its challenges. For one, it can make it difficult for INTPs to arrive at firm conclusions or make important decisions. It often seems that at the very moment they are feeling good about a given conclusion or decision, their Ne steps in and causes them to start doubting it again. This has obvious implications for INTPs who are trying to find their niche in the world. This can leave them feeling discouraged and restless, worried that they may never find what they are looking for. They may feel frustrated by their seeming lack of progress toward anything substantial. The fact is that INTPs desperately want to produce something of lasting worth or value, but they also want to ensure they get it right. They don’t want to leave any stone unturned before arriving at a conclusion. While INTPs typically enjoy this quest for truth, there comes a point when they begin to feel the pressures of life impinging on them. Questions about careers and relationships loom large as they enter their late twenties and thirties. This can be frustrating to INTPs as they feel like life is requiring them to make decisions long before they are ready. As is true of all IN types, they feel that life would be far better if they weren’t forced to consider practical concerns.

和其他所有NP型人格一样,INTP也常常对他们的Ne功能爱恨交加,他们的确喜欢Ne功能帮助他们保持开放的心态,把握那些更宏观的图景,但Ne功能也同样给他们带来了不小的挑战。

比如说,它可能会使INTP难以得出明确的结论或做下重要的决定。通常情况是,当某些关头他们的确对某个确定的结论或决定感到满意时,他们的Ne功能又会跳出来质疑,并让他们对结论产生怀疑。

这对于迫切想在这个世界上找到自己位置的INTP来说的确是很大的困扰,会使他们感到沮丧和不安,担心自己永远都找不到想要的东西,他们也会对自己似乎永远都没有什么实质性的进展而感到沮丧。

事实上,INTP非常想创造一些真正具有长期价值的东西,但他们同时也想确认自己所坚持的方向是正确的,为了到达目的地,他们往往不留余力。

然而,即便INTP确实很享受追求真理的过程,但他们终将会进入到人生的某个阶段,开始感受到现实压力对他们所产生的影响。

当他们进入到20s、30s的时候,职场与人际关系中面临的问题将越来越多。他们常常觉得自己分明还没有做好准备,生活却已经开始强迫他们做出选择。

正如所有IN人格型那样,他们总在想,如果能不考虑那些现实层面的问题,生活该多美好啊!

INTPs’ Tertiary Function: Introverted Sensing (Si)

INTP的第三功能:内向感觉(Si)

Unlike Ne (or Se), INTPs’ tertiary function, Introverted Sensing (Si), is a conservative function. It involves an attachment to past experiences and past precedent—to the routine, familiar, and predictable. Types with Si in their functional stack, including INTPs, tend to eat a fairly routine or consistent diet,“eating to live” rather than “living to eat.”Si types are not only conservative with regard to their diet, but with respect to the material world in general. They tend to be savers rather than spenders, seeing excessive material consumption as unnecessary, or perhaps even immoral.

与Ne(或Se)不同,INTP的第三功能——内向感觉(Si)是一个保守型的功能,它指向对过往经历与历史经验的联结——日常性的、有熟悉感的、可预测性的。

功能类型中有Si的人格型,包括INTP在内,都倾向于长期保持一个常规不变的饮食习惯,对他们而言,“吃只是为了满足生存所需”,而不是说“活着就是为了吃得好”。

Si人格型并不仅仅只在饮食方面是常规保守的,整个物质世界对他们而言基本都是如此,他们往往是存钱的人,而不是大手大脚花钱的人,他们认为过度的物质消费是没有必要的,甚至是不道德的。

Like other Si types, INTPs also have a diminished need for novel physical pleasures, lavish surroundings, or material comforts. They are minimalists to the core, relatively unconcerned with their physical surroundings.

与其他Si型一样,INTP对身体愉悦感、奢侈的环境或物质享受的需求非常有限,他们是非常本质的极简主义者,并不关心身处的物质环境。

An often overlooked role of Si is its perception of internal bodily sensations—the body as felt and experienced from within. Perhaps more than any other function, it provides access to the raw and basic sense of “being” that exists apart from thought or outward stimuli. Historically, Eastern philosophical and religious traditions have done a much better job exploring this dimension than those of the West. This feature of Si is brought to the fore during activities requiring close attention to one’s internal bodily state, such as yoga, Tai-Chi, meditation, or various relaxation techniques. INTPs interested in exploring this element of Si may find great delight and benefit from these sorts of practices. They are especially useful in developing the body awareness necessary to relax and control anxiety.

Si一个最被忽视的特征是它的“知觉性”和“对身体内在的感知”——从内在感受身体状况。比起其他的心理功能,Si为我们提供了那些“除了思想和外在刺激”以外的最基本的“存在”感。

历史上,东方哲学和宗教传统在探索人类经验方面比西方国家做得更好。在那些直接关注自己身体状态的活动中,比如瑜伽、太极、冥想或其他各种放松技巧,Si的功能都会变得更加明显。

INTP如果有兴趣探索他们的Si功能,将会从这些实践活动中获得极大的乐趣,并从中受益。这些活动将能有效地培养起“带来放松感与降低焦虑度”的身体觉察。

INTPs’ Inferior Function: Extraverted Feeling (Fe)

INTP的第四功能:外向情感(Fe)

INTPs use Extraverted Feeling (Fe) as their inferior function. Because it is in the inferior position, their Fe is often more sensitive and less resilient than Fe is for FJ types. This can make INTPs highly uncomfortable in emotional situations, especially those involving potential conflict or disharmony.

INTP的第四功能是外向情感(Fe),由于它处于较后的位置,所以INTP的Fe功能通常会比FJ型人格的Fe功能更加敏感、也更缺乏弹性。这可能会使INTP的情绪状态非常不舒服,尤其是处在一些潜在冲突或不和谐的状况中时。

Because of their Fe’s concern for maintaining external harmony (or what may be better understood as its discomfort with disharmony), INTPs may abstain from expressing their judgments in order to avoid unsettling others. While not as overtly warm or effusive as FJ types, INTPs can be sensitive to others’ feelings and may go out of their way to avoid hurting or offending them. For instance, in the midst of a discussion, an INTP may want to explain how human mating practices are primarily a product of evolutionary pressures. But if he suspects that others may take offense to such an explanation, he may withhold it to avoid introducing disharmony.

由于他们的Fe功能非常注重维持外部环境的和谐(或者可以理解为它们对于“不和谐”的强烈敏感与不安),INTP可能会为了防止冲突,而放弃表达自己的观点。尽管他们并不像FJ型人格那样看上去又暖又热情,但实际上INTP对他人的感受非常敏感,会特意避免伤害或冒犯到别人。

例如,在集体讨论时,一个INTP可能想要表达人类的交配行为主要是进化压力的产物,但如果他感觉到可能有人会对此观点感觉到冒犯,那就会选择保留观点以避免不和谐。

Although functioning as superficial peacemakers, INTPs are generally slower to go out of their way to help others (at least in direct, hands-on ways). Especially early in their development, most forgo community service and avoid investing extensive time and energy helping others. This is particularly evident when under stress. If burdened by too many external pressures or demands, INTPs’ willingness to help others is one of the first things to go.

Fe功能对外表现为调停者,但由于INTP的Fe排在很后面,因此总体来说INTP对于帮助他人通常都会反应很慢(至少对于那些直接的、需要亲自上手的事情是如此)。

尤其在发展早期,他们大多拒绝参加社区类服务,也避免投入大量时间和精力去帮助别人,处在压力状况下尤甚。但如果遭受了过多的外部压力或期待,INTP也会把帮助他人当作首要任务之一。

In short, INTPs’ Fe is more concerned with preserving harmony than it is with extensive helping. This is especially true early in life, when they have yet to achieve their Ti goals. Once those goals have been satisfactorily met, however, they may become more benevolent. We can see this with Einstein, for instance, who displayed increasing beneficence and generosity toward people in the second half of his life.

简而言之,INTP的Fe功能更关注外部和谐,而不是广泛地施与帮助,这在他们的人生早期尤为明显——当他们还在全神贯注地追逐自己的Ti目标时。然而,一旦这些Ti目标得到圆满地实现,他们会逐渐变得大善大爱。

比如,在爱因斯坦身上我们就能看到这一点,他在人生的后半段对人类有了更多的慈悲与体谅。


Reluctance to Extravert Judgment

抗拒坚定地对外主张

In addition to their interest in maintaining external harmony, INTPs may forgo expressing their judgments because of concerns about their ability to effectively articulate them, perhaps fearing they will be perceived as less intelligent than they really are. Hence, their reluctance to self-express relates not only to a concern for others, but also to their own fears and insecurities. It can therefore take a great deal of courage for INTPs to assert themselves, particularly when discussing matters that make them anxious or uncomfortable. INTJs, in contrast, whose extraverted Judging function (Te) is in the auxiliary position, seem to have little problem in this regard.

INTP总是会放弃表达自己的主张,不仅仅是为了保持外部和谐,也可能是因为他们担心自己并不能有效地传达观点,从而害怕自己的聪明才智被误解或低估。

因此,他们拒绝自我表达不只是因为关心他人的需求,也源于他们自己内在的恐惧与不安。

对于INTP来说,要让他们进行坚定的自我主张往往需要巨大的勇气,尤其是在讨论那些让他们感到焦虑或不舒服的话题时。相比之下,那些辅助功能为外向判断(Te)的人格型,就不太会遇到这样的问题。

Because of their difficulty with direct self-expression, INTPs are prone to making sudden executive decisions without any prior communication. Others may be left feeling incredulous as to why the INTP had not thought to discuss the issue with them first. INTPs may also exhibit passive-aggressive forms of behavior, such as intentionally staying late at the office to eschew or resist domestic expectations. INTPs can resemble IFP types in this regard, who have a similar propensity for acting passive-aggressively rather than expressing their concerns more directly.

由于INTP很难坦率地表达自我,他们反而容易在没有任何事先沟通的情况下做出突然的行为决定,其他人可能会对此感到难以置信,为什么INTP压根都没有事先谈起过这些决定。

INTP也可能会展现出一些消极攻击行为,比如故意加班以回避或抵抗家庭的压力。在这方面,INTP像IFP型人格一样,倾向于选择消极攻击行为,而不是直接地表达他们的忧虑。

Desire to Teach/Enlighten Others

渴望启迪他人

Like FJs, INTPs like the idea of teaching others. INTPs strive to discover knowledge or wisdom they can use to enlighten the world. But as we’ve seen, INTPs can struggle when it comes to directly expressing their judgments. They are more comfortable exchanging ideas by way of their auxiliary Ne than they are in delivering Fe monologues. INTPs can also become impatient with those who are slow to understand or embrace their ideas.They often expect others to learn as quickly and independently as they do. For these reasons, INTPs are often ill-suited for teaching (with the possible exception of college/university professorship) and better off sharing their insights less directly, such as through writing.

和FJ型一样,INTP也喜欢教导别人。INTP努力地发明各种新知识和新学问,来照亮这个世界。但正如我们所见,INTP在表达自我时通常都很受折磨,他们更愿意选择温和的交换意见的方式(辅助功能Ne主导),而不是他们个人独白的方式(Fe主导)。

INTP也容易对那些理解或接受他们的观点较为迟缓的人失去耐心,他们通常希望别人都能像他们一样快速而独立地学习。由于上述原因,INTP往往并不适合教学工作(可能担任大学教授会好一丢丢),他们更适合那种间接地分享自己观点的方式,比如写作等。

Desire for Affirmation/Validation

渴望被认可

Fe involves making connections between one’s own emotions and those of others. When a successful connection occurs, it results in a sense of validation, of being valued and understood. While INTPs can do at fair job at reading others’ emotions and are cognitively aware of the appropriate social response, they often do not “feel” what others are feeling. Despite this difficulty in connecting with others on a feeling level, their Fe still desires the same sense of affirmation and validation that FJs readily receive when engaging with people. This need for affirmation can be seen as a motivating force behind INTPs’ desire for achievement. It is why many INTPs score high as Enneagram Threes (3) and display certain narcissistic tendencies. Personally, I never understood my desire to write for a popular audience (rather than an academic one) until I recognized that my Fe was pushing for widespread affirmation.

Fe是一个能把个人的情感与他人的情感连接起来的功能,当连接成功发生时,会产生一种认可感——被理解和被珍视的感觉。而对于Fe处于第四功能的INTP来说,尽管他们也能读懂别人的情绪,能在认知层面作出适当的回应,但大多数情况下他们并“感受”不到别人的感觉。

INTP很难在情感层面与他人建立起联结,但他们的Fe又依然在渴望着别人的欣赏与肯定——这也是FJ型人格在与人打交道时通常能够收获到的东西。

这种渴望被他人认可的需要可以看作是INTP不断追求卓越的底层激励来源,这也是很多INTP在九型人格的第三型上得分较高、表现出自恋倾向的原因。

就我个人而言,直到意识到我的Fe功能在推动着我想要获取更为广泛的肯定,我才开始理解自己内心深处想为普罗大众写作的欲望(而非学术写作)。

Because INTPs, wittingly or not, rely on others for affirmation, they may often feel they cannot live without at least one other person in their lives. At other times, they can feel incredibly independent (Ti). Especially when their work is going well, they may feel they don’t really need other people. If they manage to completely isolate themselves from others, they will soon begin to feel that something important is missing from their lives. This prompts them to reinitiate contact with others, at least until they feel compelled to assert their independence again. This cycle of alternating between needing and devaluing others is common among INTPs and narcissists alike.

由于INTP有意或无意地都依赖于他人的肯定,所有有些时候,他们会觉得如果生活中没有其他人那简直活不下去,但有些时候,他们又会觉得自己完全的独立(Ti功能主导),尤其是当他们的工作都进展顺利时,他们会觉得并不需要其他人。

但一旦他们真的开始尝试把自己和别人完全隔离开来,又会很快地意识到生活中缺少了一些重要的东西,这会促使他们又重新开始与别人接触,一直到他们觉得有必要再次捍卫自己独立性的时候。

在INTP和一些自恋型人格中,出现这种“渴望他人”又“疏远他人”的交替循环很常见。

Slippery, “All-or-Nothing” Emotions

滑向要么全有,要么全无的情绪里

Despite the inferior position of their Fe, INTPs are not emotionless robots. Rather, as is typically the case with the inferior, there is an all-or-nothing character to their Fe. INTPs’ emotions seem to have a mind of their own, coming and going as they please. Consequently, INTPs often feel awkward or inept in emotional situations, knowing that they cannot readily summon the situationally-appropriate emotions.

尽管INTP的Fe功能位置很靠后,但INTP并不是没有情感的机器人,相反,就像通常情况下第四功能所呈现出的状态一样,INTP的Fe功能也会表现出“要么全有,要么全无”的特征。

INTP的情绪似乎总是来来去去,不受控制,因此,在一些情感状态中,INTP往往会感到有些尴尬或者无能为力——因为他们并不太能唤起与当下情境相适宜的情绪。

As mentioned previously, INTPs are usually cognitively aware of what emotions are appropriate for a given situation, but without experiencing them directly, they can sound clumsy or mechanical in their expressions. This can be difficult for their romantic partners, particularly for FJ types, since FJs desire a sense of authentic emotional communion.  While INTPs may experience strong feelings for their partners while away from them, they may not have those emotions or may have trouble communicating them while together.

正如前文所提到的,INTP大体上还是知道对不同的情绪做出合适的反应,但对于一些没有直接经验的情感体验,他们还是会表现得稍显笨拙或呆板,于是这对于他们的恋人来说就有些麻烦了,尤其是对于那些FJ型的伴侣,因为FJ型人格往往渴望真正的情感交流。

当伴侣不在身边时,INTP也许会对伴侣产生强烈的情感依恋,但真正待在一起时,他们又可能反而没有这种感觉或者很难传达出自己的情感。

For most INTPs, their Fe is rather naive and childlike. They may, for instance, be easily moved by cheesy romantic comedies or sappy love songs, anything that unconsciously incites their Fe emotions. This can also make INTPs easy targets for love-at-first-sight sorts of infatuation. They are particularly susceptible to being wooed by Feeling types, who can bypass their typical channels of logic and directly appeal to INTPs’ less conscious Fe.

对大多数INTP来说,他们的Fe功能会展现出相当幼稚或孩子气的一面,比如,他们可能会很容易被一些套路的浪漫喜剧、伤心情歌所打动,或者是其他任何无意中激发出他们Fe功能的东西。

这也使得INTP在感情上很容易一见钟情,他们会特别容易被F型人格所吸引,因为F型的人会绕过INTP的逻辑理性区,直接对他们“最弱的功能Fe”产生吸引力。

While INTPs struggle to directly summon or contact their emotions, they can readily override or detach from them, almost functioning as though they didn’t exist. Consequently, INTPs may not consciously struggle with the same degree of guilt, regret, or shame as other types. Others may be surprised how quickly INTPs can seemingly resume “business as usual” after what most would consider tragic or traumatic circumstances.

INTP在挣扎于如何才能唤起自己的情绪反应或与之建立联结时,他们也同样能很轻易地摆脱掉这些情绪,仿佛完全就没有发生过一样。

因此,INTP不太会经历那些其他人格型在内疚感、惭愧感和羞耻感方面的挣扎。

很多人都惊讶于INTP在一些大型悲剧或创伤性事件后的复原能力——他们似乎立刻就能“一切如常”。


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